Dioxins and furans are organic pollutants that can be found as byproducts in commercial organochloride pesticide formulations, chlorine-bleached pulp and paper products, and incineration of organic material in the presence of chlorine. Dioxins are persistent in the environment, bioaccumulate in humans and animals, and suspected to be teratogenic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic.
"Following the unprecedented release of dioxins and furans into the environment during the Seveso, Italy, industrial accident in 1976, regulatory agencies around the world initiated strict testing programs to monitor these toxic compounds. CIL and Cerilliant collaborated with the US EPA to prepare the first isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) standard mixtures for the analysis of PCDDs and PCDFs."
From their first commercial use in the 1920s, it is estimated that over 1,500,000 tons (1.5×1021 ng) of PCBs were produced worldwide. PCBs were banned from production in most countries in the 1970s, though large-scale contamination of the environment remains a problem today. In 2001, PCBs were included in the original Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants.
Generally used as flame retardants, brominated diphenyl ethers (BDEs) have become chemicals of significant environmental concern. BDEs are persistent and highly lipophilic substances, similar to well-known environmental contaminants such as PCBs. Flame retardants highlight the need to develop risk assessments about chemicals meant to protect us and the effect of their exposure to humans and the environment. CIL first synthesized 13C-BDEs in the 1980s as part of the earliest PBDD/PBDF analytical program.
PACs are organic compounds that can be found in natural or processed petroleum products; they are also formed during combustion of carbon-based material. The robust 13C PACs produced as part of CIL’s collaboration with Cerilliant complement the deuterium-labeled PACs suitable for routine use. New ways to monitor PACs continue to be developed, and CIL’s standards evolve with these new methods.
Chlorinated benzenes and phenols are common chemical contaminants produced in vast quantities and used in many industrial processes, bringing them in contact with the environment in a variety of locations. Owing to the sheer volume of use in commercial products, halogenated benzenes and phenols remain among the largest contributors to environmental contamination.
Major improvements in air and water quality resulted from focus on the prevention and remediation of priority pollutants. Cleaning up the environment and the products that impact dietary intake will ultimately lead to a cleaner, healthier life for all of us, and future generations. Emerging contaminants, particularly those analyzed by LC-MS, are among the most active areas of CIL’s new-product development efforts.
Essential to agricultural productivity and general pest control, many pesticides have been found to be toxic to humans and animals, and as such have been banned from use in numerous countries. The Stockholm Convention has focused worldwide attention on analysis of the most toxic pesticides. CIL promotes the development of new isotope-labeled legacy and “new use” pesticides to support laboratories using IDMS for the most accurate analytical results.
"Concern about environmental and human exposure to pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) has grown significantly. This classification encompasses a broad range of chemicals, ranging from antibiotics to hormones to pesticides. One common theme among these groups is the need forhigh-quality isotopically labeled standards to strengthen the analysis of PPCPs in difficult matrices such as sewage sludge and wastewater. CIL, with guidance from leading laboratories around the world, works diligently to produce representative standards for the analysis of PPCPs."
Phthalates continue to be a growing environmental concern, especially as more is learned about the effect of continued exposure on the environment and the human body. Phthalate diesters are ubiquitous in the laboratory environment, so many analysts are now examining phthalate monoesters and metabolites of phthalate monoesters to reduce background interferences. Adipate esters are also anticipated to be of interest to exposure analysts; please inquire if you are interested in additional adipate standards.
From stain-resistant textiles to nonstick surface coatings and much more, poly- and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are nearly ubiquitous chemicals in the environment. CIL offers several new labeled and unlabeled perfluorinated carboxylic acid standards (PFCAs) in this catalog. CIL will be continuously adding to our offerings, so we recommend visiting our website for product updates in this rapidly growing field.
The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants was established in 2001 and entered into force in 2004. This global treaty was developed to protect human health and the environment from persistent organic pollutants, aka POPs. Stockholm Convention POPs are distinguished by four main characteristics: 1) long-term persistence; 2) distribution across wide boundaries; 3) bioaccumulation through the food web; and 4) toxicity to both humans and wildlife.